How Constitutional Rights Matter

National constitutions lay out the fundamental principles by which countries are governed. But
despite their important, until recently, there has been limited data on the contents of these
documents, and scant empirical research on the effects of the provisions included in constitutions
on outcomes like economic growth or the protection of human rights. We are law professors that
have been conducting an ongoing comparative law research project to collect data on national
constitutions, explain why countries adopt different constitutional provisions, and then test the
effects of those provisions. On this website, you can learn more about our research, download
our data, and find information on our book How Constitutional Rights Matter.

Authors

Mila Versteeg

Mila Versteeg is the Martha Lubin Karsh and Bruce A. Karsh Bicentennial Professor of Law at the University of Virginia School of Law and a Senior Fellow at the Miller Center. In 2017, she was named an Andrew Carnegie Fellow to conduct research on constitutional rights effectiveness. Her primary research interests include comparative constitutional law, international human rights law and empirical legal studies.

Her work has appeared in leading law and social science journals, including the Harvard Law Review, the Columbia Law Review, the University of Chicago Law Review, the NYU Law Review, the American Journal of International Law, the American Journal of Political Science, the American Political Science Review, the Journal of Legal Studies, the Journal of Law and Economics, and the Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization. Her work has been translated into Spanish, Portuguese, Turkish and Chinese.

Adam Chilton

Adam Chilton is a Professor of Law and Walter Mander Research Scholar at the University of  Chicago School of Law. His research interests lie at the intersection of international law, comparative law, and empirical legal studies. His work has appeared in leading law and social science journals, including the American Journal of Political Science, American Law and Economic Review, Journal of Legal Studies, Journal of Law and Economics, and the Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization. You can read more about Adam here.

How constitutional rights matter

Does putting a right in a constitution cause governments to actually respect it in practice? Drawing on a wide variety of methods—including survey experiments, statistical analyses, and case studies from around the world—this book explains that whether constitutional rights matter depends on the type of right.


For constitutional rights to be respected, citizens must be able to punish their government for violations. Orchestrating the kind of collective actions needed to punish governments is difficult for citizens hoping to protect individual rights, like the freedom of speech and the prohibition of torture, because the costs of activism are often not worth it for any one person. And given that individual rights often lack natural constituencies that can collectively organize to overcome this problem, governments may be able to violate these rights with impunity.

But some rights have built-in constituencies able to mobilize for their protection. These constituencies exists for rights practiced by organizations, like religious groups, trade unions, and political parties. When these groups are protected by the constitution, they can use it as a tool in their legal and political advocacy. As a result, organizational constitutional rights are systematically associated with better respect for those rights.


However, even highly organized groups armed with the constitution cannot always stop repressive governments bent on violating rights. But when groups take advantage of their organizational infrastructure to use the constitution strategically they can often slow or halt repression, even in authoritarian settings.

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Praise for How Constitutional Rights Matter

Whether international or constitutional, legal rights are rarely honored without some kind of organized resistance to repression. This book shows that the realization of rights is related to peoples’ ability to organize, be it around faith, the work place, or political goals. Chilton and Versteeg seem to have surprised even themselves in uncovering persuasive contextual and quantitative evidence that law matters for human and civil rights, but so does the motive and means to organize politically to assert those rights on the national or global stage. Read this rich book, and you will appreciate the complex ways that law and politics are inextricably connected.

Beth Simmons
Andrea Mitchell University Professor in Law, Political Science and Business Ethics, University of Pennsylvania

 

How Constitutional Rights Matter
2020-05-17T19:30:19+00:00

Beth Simmons
Andrea Mitchell University Professor in Law, Political Science and Business Ethics, University of Pennsylvania

 

Whether international or constitutional, legal rights are rarely honored without some kind of organized resistance to repression. This book shows that the realization of rights is related to peoples’ ability to organize, be it around faith, the work place, or political goals. Chilton and Versteeg seem to have surprised even themselves in uncovering persuasive contextual and quantitative evidence that law matters for human and civil rights, but so does the motive and means to organize politically to assert those rights on the national or global stage. Read this rich book, and you will appreciate the complex ways that law and politics are inextricably connected.
Do constitutional rights matter?  The stunning argument of this book is that they don’t.  Analyzing data from 194 countries over 60 years, Chilton & Versteeg find that constitutional provisions protecting individual rights don’t enhance protection of those rights.  Neither do independent judiciaries. Adding nuance to this portrait, they find that organizational rights, such as the right to unionize and the right to form political parties, can be used strategically by protected organizations to sometimes further their interests.  This is a compelling book that is required reading for anyone interested in protecting fundamental democratic rights.

Gerald N. Rosenberg
Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Chicago

How Constitutional Rights Matter
2020-05-17T19:31:31+00:00

Gerald N. Rosenberg
Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Chicago

Do constitutional rights matter?  The stunning argument of this book is that they don’t.  Analyzing data from 194 countries over 60 years, Chilton & Versteeg find that constitutional provisions protecting individual rights don’t enhance protection of those rights.  Neither do independent judiciaries. Adding nuance to this portrait, they find that organizational rights, such as the right to unionize and the right to form political parties, can be used strategically by protected organizations to sometimes further their interests.  This is a compelling book that is required reading for anyone interested in protecting fundamental democratic rights.
An interesting, thoughtful and provocative work that should be read by scholars interested in understanding how constitutional texts protecting rights do, and do not matter.

Vicki Jackson
Thurgood Marshall Professor of Constitutional Law, Harvard Law School

How Constitutional Rights Matter
2020-05-17T19:32:25+00:00

Vicki Jackson
Thurgood Marshall Professor of Constitutional Law, Harvard Law School

An interesting, thoughtful and provocative work that should be read by scholars interested in understanding how constitutional texts protecting rights do, and do not matter.
Chilton and Versteeg’s How Constitutional Rights Matter is simply a game changer. Wide-ranging and meticulously researched, it is a remarkable work of comparative constitutional studies that sets an astounding new benchmark in the empirical examination of constitutional rights and their impact worldwide. A genuine scholarly gem that every aspiring student of law, society and politics should read.

Ran Hirschl
Professor of Political Science & Law, University of Toronto

How Constitutional Rights Matter
2020-05-17T19:00:03+00:00

Ran Hirschl
Professor of Political Science & Law, University of Toronto

Chilton and Versteeg’s How Constitutional Rights Matter is simply a game changer. Wide-ranging and meticulously researched, it is a remarkable work of comparative constitutional studies that sets an astounding new benchmark in the empirical examination of constitutional rights and their impact worldwide. A genuine scholarly gem that every aspiring student of law, society and politics should read.
As authoritarianism spreads around the world, do fundamental rights collapse? Organizational rights – freedoms for unions, religious groups, and political parties – prove more resilient than individual rights – like freedom of speech and freedom from torture. Read about Putin’s Russia, Erdogan’s Turkey and Suu Kyi’s Myanmar, and shudder. Theoretically nuanced, comprehensive in scope, and cutting-edge in its methods, How Constitutional Rights Matter will be the go-to book for experts and beginners alike for decades to come.

Katerina Linos
Professor and Co-Director, Miller Center for Global Challenges and the Law, UC Berkeley

How Constitutional Rights Matter
2020-05-17T19:00:46+00:00

Katerina Linos
Professor and Co-Director, Miller Center for Global Challenges and the Law, UC Berkeley

As authoritarianism spreads around the world, do fundamental rights collapse? Organizational rights – freedoms for unions, religious groups, and political parties – prove more resilient than individual rights – like freedom of speech and freedom from torture. Read about Putin’s Russia, Erdogan’s Turkey and Suu Kyi’s Myanmar, and shudder. Theoretically nuanced, comprehensive in scope, and cutting-edge in its methods, How Constitutional Rights Matter will be the go-to book for experts and beginners alike for decades to come.
How do Constitutional Rights Matter?  Not as much, Adam Chilton and Mila Versteeg argue, as many human rights and constitutional scholars have long thought – or hoped. In this brilliant new book, Chilton and Versteeg assemble a vast quantity of empirical evidence to show that constitutional rights are often ‘parchment’ barriers honoured more in the breach.  The major determinant of rights implementation, they suggest, is whether rights have an in-built collective enforcement structure – or are linked to organisations (such as labor unions, or religious groups) that help monitor and ensure their enforcement. And while this does not mean giving up on human rights, or constitutional design, it does mean rethinking how and when they matter.  For this reason, the book should be considered compulsory reading for all rights scholars and practitioners globally:  it tells us with new clarity the limits of our current assumptions and approaches, and how we might do better to create the structures necessary for the realisation of our aspirations.

Rosalind Dixon
Professor of Law, University of New South Wales

How Constitutional Rights Matter
2020-05-17T19:29:08+00:00

Rosalind Dixon
Professor of Law, University of New South Wales

How do Constitutional Rights Matter?  Not as much, Adam Chilton and Mila Versteeg argue, as many human rights and constitutional scholars have long thought – or hoped. In this brilliant new book, Chilton and Versteeg assemble a vast quantity of empirical evidence to show that constitutional rights are often ‘parchment’ barriers honoured more in the breach.  The major determinant of rights implementation, they suggest, is whether rights have an in-built collective enforcement structure – or are linked to organisations (such as labor unions, or religious groups) that help monitor and ensure their enforcement. And while this does not mean giving up on human rights, or constitutional design, it does mean rethinking how and when they matter.  For this reason, the book should be considered compulsory reading for all rights scholars and practitioners globally:  it tells us with new clarity the limits of our current assumptions and approaches, and how we might do better to create the structures necessary for the realisation of our aspirations.
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How Constitutional Rights Matter

Research

Here is a selection of our research on constitutions and constitutional rights. A full list of our publications can be found on our websites at the University of Virginia and University of Chicago.

The Impact of Constitutions and Constitutional Rights 
  • Mila Versteeg, “Can Rights Combat Economic Inequality?” 133 Harvard Law Review 2017 (2020). Available here
  • Mila Versteeg, Tim Horley, Anne Meng, Mauricio Guim & Marilyn Guirguis “The Law and Politics of Presidential Term Limit Evasion” 120 Columbia Law Review 173 (2020). Available here
  • Tom Ginsburg & Mila Versteeg, “From Catalonia to California: Secession in Constitutional Law” 70 Alabama Law Review 923 (2019). Available here
  • Adam Chilton & Mila Versteeg, “Rights without Resources: The Impact of Constitutional Social Rights on Social Spending” 60 Journal of Law and Economics 713 (2017). Available here
  • Adam Chilton & Mila Versteeg, “Do Constitutional Rights Make a Difference?” 60 American Journal of Political Science 575 (2016). Available here
  • Adam Chilton & Mila Versteeg, “The Failure of Constitutional Torture Prohibitions” 44 J. Legal Stud. 417 (2016). Available here
  • Mila Versteeg, “The Politics of Takings Clauses,” 109 Nw. U. L. Rev. 695 (2015). Available here
  • David S. Law & Mila Versteeg, “Sham Constitutions” 101 Cal. L. Rev. 863 (2013). Available here.
  • Benedikt Goderis & Mila Versteeg, “Human Rights Violations After 9/11 and the Role of Constitutional Constraints” 41 J. Legal Stud. 131 (2012).  Available here.
Explaining Constitutional Rights and Other Constitutional Design Features
  • Adam S. Chilton & Mila Versteeg, “Small-c Constitutional Rights” Working Paper (2019). Available here
  • Adam Chilton & Eric Posner, “Country Specific Investments and the Rights of Non-Citizens” 57 Virginia Journal of International Law 575 (2018). Available here
  • Eyal Benvenisti & Mila Versteeg, “The External Dimensions of Constitutions” 57 Virginia Journal of International Law 517 (2018). Available here.
  • Lucas Kowalczyk & Mila Versteeg, “The Political Economy of the Constitutional Right to Asylum” 102 Cornell Law Review 1291 (2017). Available here
  • Mila Versteeg & Emily Zackin,  “Constitutions Un-Entrenched: Toward an Alternative Theory of Constitutional Design” 110 American Political Science Review 657 (2016). Available here
  • Mila Versteeg, “Law versus Norms: The Impact of International Human Rights Treaties on Constitutional Rights,” 171 J. Institutional & Theoretical Econ. 87 (2015).  Available here.
  • Benedikt Goderis & Mila Versteeg, “The Diffusion of Constitutional Rights” 39 Int’l Rev. L. & Econ. 1 (2014). Available here.
  • Tom Ginsburg, Daniel Lansberg-Rodriguez & Mila Versteeg, “When to Overthrow Your Government: The Right to Resist in the World’s Constitutions” 60 UCLA L. Rev. 1184 (2013).  Available here.
  • David S. Law & Mila Versteeg, “The Evolution and Ideology of Global Constitutionalism” 99 Cal. L. Rev. 1163 (2011). Available here.
Constitutions and Public Opinion
  • Adam Chilton, Kevin Cope, Charles Crabtree, & Mila Versteeg, “Support for Restricting Liberty for Safety: Evidence During the COVID-19 Pandemic from the United States, Japan, and Israel” Working Paper (2020). Available here
  • Tom Ginsburg, Aziz Huq & Mila Versteeg, “The Coming Demise of Liberal Constitutionalism?” 85 University of Chicago Law Review 239 (2018) Available here
  • Adam Chilton & Mila Versteeg, “International Law, Constitutional Law, and Public Support for Torture: Evidence from a Survey Experiment”  Res. & Pol 1 (2016). Available here
  • Nicholas O. Stephanopoulos & Mila Versteeg, “The Contours of Constitutional Approval”  94 Wash. U. L. Rev. 113 (2016). Available here
  • Mila Versteeg, “Unpopular Constitutionalism,” 89 Ind. L.J. 1133 (2014). Available here.
Constitutional Courts
  • Adam Chilton & Mila Versteeg, “Courts’ Limited Ability to Protect Constitutional Rights” 85 University of Chicago Law Review 293 (2018). Available here
  • Tom Ginsburg & Mila Versteeg, “Why Do Countries Adopt Constitutional Review?” 30 J.L. Econ. & Org. 587 (2014). Available here.
The U.S. Constitution in Comparative Perspective
  • Mila Versteeg & Emily Zackin, “American Constitutional Exceptionalism Revisited” 81 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1641 (2014). Available here.
  • David S. Law & Mila Versteeg, “The Declining Influence of the U.S. Constitution” 87 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 762 (2012). Available here.

Small-C Constitutions

Countries’ formal, written constitutions—the “Large-C” constitution—typically list of a large number of rights that the government must respect. But rights included in these formal documents are often not the only rights that may be given constitutional protection. Instead, there is often a broader body of constitutional law derived from sources like judicial decisions, treaties, and conventions—the “small-c” constitution—that also provides protection for rights. 


However, it is often difficult to establish which legal materials are definitively part of a country’s small-c constitution, and as a result, which rights are protected by this broader body of constitutional law. To investigate the nature and relative importance of small-c constitutions, we fielded a global expert survey on the nature of constitutional rights protection to 188 experts from 103 countries. The following are the experts that participated in our survey on small-c constitutions.

Our findings are available here

Country

Expert

Affiliation

Afghanistan

Ghizal Haress

American University of Afghanistan, Department of Law 

Albania

Adea Pirdeni

University of Tirana, Faculty of Law

Algeria

Abdesselam Salmi

Ajman University, UAE

Argentina

Juan Martín Morando

Argentina

María Lorena Schiariti

Marval, O'Farrell & Mairal

Armenia

Armen Mazmanyan

Central European University

Australia

Rosalind Dixon

UNSW

Austria

Konrad Lachmayer

Sigmund Freud University Vienna

Bangladesh

Ridwanul Hoque

University of Dhaka and La Trobe University

Belgium

Jurgen Goossens

Ghent University and Erasmus University of Rotterdam

Belgium

Ronald Van Crombrugge

KU Leuven

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Maja Sahadzic

University of Antwerp

Botswana

Kago Rapula Mokotedi

Botswana Public Employees Union

Brazil

Bruno Bodart

Harvard Law School; Rio de Janeiro State University

Brazil

Daniel Capecchi Nunes

Federal University of Juiz de Fora

Brazil

Fernando Barboza Dias

University of Virginia

Brazil

Filippo Maria Lancieri

University of Chicago Law School

Brazil

Gabriel Dias Marques da Cruz

Federal University of Bahia (UFBA, Brazil)

Brazil

José Borges Teixeira Júnior

Federal University of Espírito Santo State

Brazil

José Eduardo Figueiredo de Andrade Martins

Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas

Brazil

Luiz Guilherme Marinoni

Universidade Federal do Paraná

Brazil

Mariana Almeida Kato

Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne

Brazil

Miguel Calmon Dantas

UFBA

Brazil

Paula Gorzoni

Christian Albrechts University Kiel

Brazil

Vanice Lirio do Valle

Estácio de Sá University

Bulgaria

Martin Belov

University of Sofia “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Law

Burundi

Audace Gatavu

University of Ottawa

Cambodia

Hor Peng

National University of Management

Cameroon

Charles Manga Fombad

Institute for International and Comparative Law, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria

Canada

Charles-Maxime Panaccio

Faculty of law, University of Ottawa

Canada

Gordon DiGiacomo

University of Ottawa

Cape Verde

José Pina-Delgado

Instituto Superior de Ciências Jurídicas e Sociais - ISCJS

Chile

Alberto Coddou Mc Manus

Diego Portales University

Chile

Ignacio Arana

Carnegie Mellon University

Chile

José Francisco García

Pontifical Catholic University of Chile

Chile

Rodrigo Delaveau

Universidad Católica de Chile

Chile

Sergio Verdugo

Universidad del Desarrollo

China

Haitian Lu

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

China

Meng Qiang

School of Law, Beijing Institute of Technology

China

Qingyu Qi

Renmin University of China Law School

China

Ran You

China University of Petroleum

China

Wu Yujia

Economic Law, Renmin University of China

China

Xi Tian

Nanjing Agricultural University China

China

Xuezhi Wei

Shandong University

Colombia

Camilo Sánchez

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Colombia

Santiago Virgüez Ruiz

Universidad de los Andes

Colombia

Susan Achury

University of Houston

Colombia

Vicente F. Benítez-Rojas

Universidad de La Sabana (Colombia) and NYU School of Law

Costa Rica

Alejandro Batalla

Universidad Autónoma de Centro América

Costa Rica

Bruce Wilson

UCF

Croatia

Djordje Gardasevic

Zagreb Law Faculty, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Cyprus

Constantinos Kombos

Law Department, University of Cyprus

Czech Republic

Marek Antoš

Charles University, Prague

Czech Republic

Miluse Kindlova

Charles University Faculty of Law (Prague)

Denmark

Helle Krunke

Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen

Denmark

Ole Terkelsen

Aarhus University, Department of Law

Dominican Republic

Nassef Perdomo

Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra

Ecuador

Jorge Baquerizo-Minuche

Universitat de Girona (Spain)

Ecuador

Mauricio Guim

University of Virginia

Ecuador

Oscar Del Brutto

UEES

Ecuador

Patricio Alvarado Luzuriaga

Universidad de Especialidades Espiritu Santo

Ecuador

Socrates Augusto Verduga Sanchez

Catholic University of Guayaquil

Egypt

Mohamed Abdelaal

Alexandria University

El Salvador

Herman Manuel Duarte

Hduarte-LEX (Costa Rica & El Salvador)

El Salvador

José Albino Tinetti

Escuela Superior de Economía y Negocios

El Salvador

Roberto Díaz

Harvard Law School

Estonia

Mart Susi

Tallinn University

Ethiopia

Berihun Adugna Gebeye

Central European University

Federated States of Micronesia

Michael J. Sipos

Law Office of Michael J. Sipos

Fiji

Shaista Shameem

University of Fiji

Finland

Tuomas Ojanen

University of Helsinki

France

Cédric Bernard

Université Jean Moulin, Lyon 3

France

Pierre-Jean Douvier

CMS Francis Lefebvre

Gabon

Ondo Telesphore

Omar Bongo University

Ghana

Michael Addaney

University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani, Ghana

Ghana

Peace Gifty Sakyibea Ofei

Kristalhelder Proeflezer

Greece

Georgios Dimitropoulos

HBKU, College of Law and Public Policy

Hungary

Eszter Bodnár

ELTE Eötvös Loránd Unviersity

India

Sandeep Suresh

Jindal Global Law School

India

Saranya Mishra

ILS Law College, Pune

India

Vishwajith Sadananda

University of Michigan Law School

Indonesia

Reyhan Gustira Anwar

Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia

Indonesia

Rosa Ristawati

Maastricht University

Iran

Ali Shirvani

Xiamen University, China; Meymeh University, Iran

Ireland

Graham Butler

Aarhus University, Denmark

Israel

Adam Shinar

IDC Herzliya

Israel

Netta Barak-Corren

Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Israel

Talya Steiner

Israel Democracy Institue, Hebrew University Law School

Italy

Andrea Pin

University of Padova

Italy

Antonio D'Aloia

University of Parma

Japan

Eriko Taoka

Faculty of Law, Kokushikan University

Japan

Keigo Obayashi

Chiba University Law School

Kazakhstan

Alexei Trochev

Nazarbayev University

Kenya

Kipkemoi Sang

Advocate Trainee at Kenya School of Law

Kosovo

Visar Morina

Faculty of Law of the University of Prishtina

Kyrgyzstan

Shairbek Dzhuraev

Crossroads Central Asia

Laos

Khamphaeng Phochanthilath

Sciaroni & Associates Sole Co., Ltd.

Laos

Pavina Thephithuck

BABSEACLE (NGO)

Latvia

Uldis Ķinis

Rīga Stradiņš University

Liberia

D. Elwood Dunn

Sewanee: The University of the South

Liechtenstein

Patricia Schiess

Liechtenstein-Institut

Lithuania

Vaidotas A. Vaicaitis

Vilniaus Universitetas (Vilnius University)

Macedonia

Gordana Siljanovska-Davkova

Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

Mauritius

Nora Ho Tu Nam

University of the Western Cape

Mexico

Franz Oberarzbacher

University of Virginia, School of Law;  ITAM

Mexico

Geraldina GonzalezdelaVega

Universidad Iberoamericana

Mexico

Ismael Villar Bragdon

UNAM

Mexico

José María Soberanes Díez

Universidad Panamericana

Morocco

Mohammed Madani

University Mohamed V-Rabat, Rabat Morocco

Netherlands

Hans-Martien ten Napel

Leiden Law School

Netherlands

Ingrid Leijten

Leiden University

New Zealand

Petra Butler

Victoria University of Wellington

Nigeria

Emmanuel Ojotu

University of Roehampton

Nigeria

Iyabode Ogunniran

Faculty of Law, University of Lagos, Nigeria

North Korea

Jeong-Ho Roh

Columbia Law School

Norway

Anine Kierulf

Norwegian National Human Rights Institution

Norway

Eirik Holmøyvik

University of Bergen

Norway

Eivind Smith

University of Oslo

Norway

Mads Andenas QC

University of Oslo

Norway

Malcolm

University of Oslo

Norway

Stian Øby Johansen

University of Oslo

Paraguay

Luis Lezcano Claude

Universidad Nacional de Asunción (Paraguay)

Peru

Daniel Soria Luján

Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú

Philippines

Francis Tom Temprosa

University of Michigan Law School

Poland

Rafal Blicharz

University of Silesia

Poland

Władysław Jóźwicki

Adam Mickiewicz University

Portugal

Catarina Santos Botelho

Universidade Católica Portuguesa

Portugal

Irene Portela

Polytechnic Institute of Cavado and Ave

Portugal

Mariana de Sousa e Alvim

Lisbon School of Law

Romania

Bianca Gutan

Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu

Sao Tome and Principe

Fernando Loureiro Bastos

Faculty of Law, University of Lisbon

Senegal

FALL Alioune Badara

Faculté de Droit, de Science politique et de Gestion, Université de Bordeaux, France

Sierra Leone

Joel Tejan Deen-Tarawally

Legal Aid Board

Singapore

Andrew Harding

National University of Singapore

Singapore

Swati Jhaveri

National University of Singapore

Slovakia

Marek Domin

Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Law

Slovenia

Samo Bardutzky

University of Ljubljana

Somalia

Mustafe Mohamed H.Dahir

SAHANSAMO Advocates and Legal Consultants

South Africa

Andra le Roux-Kemp

City University of Hong Kong

South Africa

Andrew Konstant

University of Chicago

South Africa

Wessel le Roux

University of the Western Cape

South Korea

Su-Yeon Kim

Samsung Economic Research Institute

South Sudan

Biel Boutros Biel

South Sudan Human Rights Society for Advocacy

South Sudan

Elfaki Chol Lual

University of Juba

Spain

Ana Cannilla

University of Reading

Spain

Benito Aláez Corral

University of Oviedo

Spain

Ángel Aday Jiménez Alemán

University of Vigo

Swaziland

Thabiso Caesar Mavuso

Motsa Mavuso Attorneys

Swaziland

Thulani Maseko

Institute for Democracy & Leadership

Sweden

Anna Jonsson Cornell

Faculty of Law, Uppsala University

Switzerland

Klaus Mathis

University of Lucerne

Switzerland

Reto Walther

University of Zurich

Switzerland

Rémy Bucheler

Taiwan

Hsin-Hsuan Lin

University of Virginia, School of Law

Taiwan

Jau-Yuan Hwang

Taiwan Constitutional Court; National Taiwan University

Tanzania

Benedict Maige Nchalla, Esq.

Tumaini University Makumira

Thailand

Apinop Atipiboonsin

Thammasat University

Thailand

Khemthong Tonsakulrungruang

Chulalongkorn University

Tunisia

Neila Chaabane ép. Hamouda

Faculty of Juridical, Political and Social Sciences, Carthage University

Turkey

Cem Tecimer

Harvard Law School

Turkey

Serkan Koybasi

Bahcesehir University

Turkey

Tarik Olcay

University of Glasgow

Turkey

Volkan Aslan

Istanbul University Faculty of Law

Uganda

Fred Sekindi

Foundation for Human Rights Initiative

Uganda

Sauda Nabukenya

University of Michigan

Uganda

Walter Mandela

Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva

United Kingdom

Aileen McHarg

University of Strathclyde

United Kingdom

Christina Lienen

University College London

United Kingdom

Kenneth Campbell QC

Faculty of Advocates & University of Edinburgh

United Kingdom

Rebecca Mooney

University of Oxford

United States of America

William Baude

University of Chicago Law School

Venezuela

Allan R. Brewer-Carías

Central University of Venezuela

Venezuela

Juan Albert Berríos Ortigoza

Universidad del Zulia

Vietnam

Vy Nguyen Duc Nguyen

University of Virginia

Yugoslavia

Violeta Beširević

Union University Law School Belgrade

Zambia

Muna Ndulo

Cornell Law School

Zimbabwe

David Tinashe Hofisi

Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights

Zimbabwe

Simplicio Bhebhe

Kantor And Immerman Legal Practitioners

Data

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